Art and science are two sides of the same creative coin− they sometimes even manage to be one and the same. Increasingly, in a whole range of mediums, tales from medicine are getting an artistic rendering, allowing practitioners and patients alike to share their stories with the public. Graphic medicine is one such genre, a small but growing body of work that blends medicine and comics or graphic novels. The result is a unique take on healthcare that illustrates (literally) the experience of the sick and those caring for them, while fostering understanding and empathy.
Comics often show more than tell a story. The artwork allows comics to clearly demonstrate emotionally complex situations, like the effects of a disease, or abstract concepts, like a vision or a dream, without getting bogged down in the laborious detail that would be required in text alone5. Because they don’t rely solely on words, comics can convey feelings and ideas that are difficult to articulate. And because the pictures don’t have to be literal, comics can present how a situation feels, instead of simply how it looks4.
Comics are a fundamentally flexible medium. They easily incorporate complex plot devices like magical realism, and allow for contradiction between what is written in the text and what is shown in the artwork. They can be meta, with the artist depicting themselves creating the comic that is being read (this narrative sleight of hand is called self reflexivity). Even the frame format of comics provides a tool for storytelling. Because the human brain seeks out a narrative, leaving gaps in the story between frames draws the reader in, forcing them to connect to the dots5. Comics have also developed a countercultural ethos in some quarters, and can be also delightfully anarchic. They can be explicit and rude, but they can also be deeply moving3,5.
Not all fun and games
Graphic medicine is a diverse genre. Although it does include humorous strips (see below for an example), the comics aren’t always funny (see above for an example). They can even be academic, blurring the boundary between textbooks, novel, and autobiography by including factual information like infographics. The malleability of medical comics allows it to give a voice to range of people in the healthcare system, from patients and their loved ones, to their caregivers4.
The best medicine
Medical education seeks not only to impart knowledge about disease, but also understanding about the patient experience. Graphic medicine may provide a key tool in bridging that gap. Creating comics has been shown to increase confidence in skills like empathy, communication, and clinical reasoning and diagnosis in medical students5. Fortunately, it’s growing rapidly.
The genre has taken off in the last decade. Since 2010, there has been an annual graphic medicine conference, and there is at least one online repository of medical comics: Annals Graphic Medicine, a part of the Annals of Internal Medicine1. The website Graphic Medicine provides reviews and resources about medical comics, lists over 100 graphic novels (as well as comic books, manga, etc.) and has its own graphic medicine book series2.
Perhaps more than anything, the impact of graphic medicine highlights the fact that− when it comes to disease and healthcare− words aren’t enough.
- Annals of Graphic Medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine. Web. 22 May 2016.
- Graphic Medicine. Graphic Medicine. Web. 22 May 2016.
- Lawson, E. (2013). Graphic medicine: humanity in cartoon rats. British Journal of General Practice, Fall: 541.
- Squier, S. (2008) Literature and medicine, future tense: making it graphic. Literature and Medicine, 27:124-152.
- Williams, ICM. (2012). Graphic medicine: comics as medical narrative. Medical Humanities, 38:21-27.
Image credits: 1. Cohen, YZ, and S Haber. (2015). One in a million. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163:W129-W134. doi:10.7326/G14-0001 2. Doc Rat, by Jenner